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Revision as of 17:04, 16 December 2018 by Mits (talk | contribs) (ハッカビリティ Hackability)

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作成中です - mits (talk)






ハッカビリティ Hackability

Maharaは基本部分からすべてにおいて高度に着脱および簡単に改造できるよう設計されています。PHPおよびLAMPスタックに慣れている多くの開発者が存在しているため、私たちはMaharaを意図的にPHPで書くようにしました。MaharaはLinuxからSolaris/BSD/Macへの移行、ApacheからNginx/Lighttpdへの移行、およびMySQLからPostgreSQL (推奨DBMS) への移行も含めて、多くの様々なLAPMで動作させることができます。Maharaチームが厳密にテストしたわけではありませんが、MaharaをWindowsおよびIISで動作させた人もいます。パッチは歓迎します :)

パッチに関して話しますと、あなたがすでに知っているようにMaharaは無料のオープンソースです。Maharaの小規模の開発部隊は新しい機能、バグ修正、フォーラムでのサポート、Maharaの一般的な改善に日々関わっています。新しい機能の開発からMaharaの最良な利用の提案に関するバグレポートの投稿等、開発部隊のまわりには熱心なコミュニティ、翻訳者、ボランティア、開発者および多くの部分でMaharaの改善に尽力するユーザがいます。Surrounding them is a community of enthusiasts, translators, volunteers, developers and users who improve Mahara in many ways - from developing new features to reporting bugs to suggesting the best way to use Mahara. The point is, it's free software which means you're absolutely encouraged to hack it to death!

プラグインシステム Plugin System

A key feature of Mahara's architecture is the plugin system. All sorts of parts of Mahara are pluggable - from the types of content users can have, to how users are authorised, right through to how search is implemented and how groups work. All plugins in Mahara, regardless of their type (more on that in the next section), share some functionality such as the ability to register cron jobs and subscribe to events. There are quite a few subsystems in place to make the job of writing plugins easier as well.

プラグインタイプ Plugin Types

Where parts of Mahara are pluggable, an API has been created especially for that purpose. For example, the API for user content types contains methods dealing with the content itself and ownership of the content, while the searching API provides methods detailing what search results are required. We call all of these a different type of plugin. Here are some examples:

  • The artefact plugin type deals with user content (an item of user content is called an artefact, hence the name).
  • The auth plugin type has an API for authorising user accounts.
  • The blocktype plugin type provides a pluggable way to put new types of block into the system.

As of Mahara 1.1, the following plugin types are available: artefact, auth, blocktype, grouptype, interaction, notification and search.

This approach has some nice benefits. For example, in parts of the system where one of the plugin types is being used, we don't have to ask every single plugin in the system whether it supports the API - only plugins of the correct type will be used. Plugin types also allows us to customise the API for the actual requirements. For example, a plugin dealing with search can just implement the search API methods, and doesn't have to say that it doesn't support user content, notifications or anything else for that matter.

On disk: Each plugin type has a directory in the htdocs/ folder. Each of these directories contains a lib.php

プラグイン Plugins

Given the previous section, the plugins themselves are simply instances of a plugin type. So for example, for artefact, the Mahara core ships with plugins for blogs, a file manager, resume and profile information. And in notification, Mahara has 'internal' (which logs messages to a user's activity log), email and emaildigest.

Each plugin has to provide a lib.php, which contains at least one class definition. This class allows the plugin to register cron jobs and events, and also hook into more specific functionality for that plugin type. For example, artefact plugins can register new menu items for the main menu.

In the case of artefact plugins, each plugin can also provide one or more PHP scripts that render pages it requires. In this way, artefact plugins can present highly custom interfaces for managing content, while gaining all the benefits of sharing various properties with other items of content.

On disk: Each plugin is a subdirectory under the appropriate plugin type subdirectory. It provides a lib.php and version.php, and if it needs database tables, a db/ directory. Some plugin types have other directories too - such as theme/ or blocktype/.

In code: Each plugin's lib.php contains a Plugin class which extends Plugin. E.g., PluginArtefactBlog which extends PluginArtefact. This implements the appropriate API. Other classes may be necessary depending on the plugin type.

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